Chemical pesticides, even in trace amounts, can be dangerous for human consumption. While certain pesticides are allowed for use in the cultivation of cannabis and hemp, many are not allowed for use because of known or unknown dangers of consumption. Even if you or your cultivator isn’t using chemical pesticides, they can sometimes infiltrate safe crops from neighboring farms using these restricted pesticides. As a result, it’s important to test for any amounts of pesticide in the final product. CannaSafe tests for 66 pesticides in Category 1 and Category 2, according to California State Law. We can test for others upon request.
What is a Pesticide?
Pesticides are any substance used to deter, repel, or destroy insects or other organisms harmful to cultivated plants or to animals. It’s the chemicals used as pesticides that can endanger humans, and these are what we test for in cannabis and hemp.
Here are Some of the Pesticides we test for:
An insecticide that works as an organophosphate by inhibiting cholinesterase, which is an enzyme that is essential for a proper working nervous system for both humans and insects. DDVP is used to control mushroom flies, aphids, spider mites, caterpillars, thrips, and white flies.
A plant growth regulator that is used typically on trees prevents regrowth from occurring upon trimming and application of paclobutrazol. It is considered low risk as far as toxicity goes.
A highly toxic carbamate pesticide that has been banned in pellet form in certain ecologically sensitive areas due to its toxicity. It is used to kill insects, nematodes, and mites on contact or after ingestion. It can kill other wildlife as well, and is highly toxic to people upon contact or inhalation, and moderately toxic through dermal contact.
An insecticide that is used to kill cockroaches, ants, fleas, ticks, spiders, and other insects. While having nearly zero toxicity levels for mammals and birds, etofenprox is highly toxic to freshwater fish, invertebrates, and honey bees.
An insecticide that is typically not used on food crops, and more for pest mitigation around outdoor areas. It is used for mosquitos, flies, fleas and ticks on pets, ants, and snails. Propoxur is highly toxic to humans and in toxic levels can cause nausea, vomiting, blurred vision, high pulse rate, and profuse sweating.
As a highly toxic insecticide, chlordane is no longer distributed in the United States as the use of it was canceled in 1988 due to the concerns of it causing a high risk of cancer. Before then, it was typically used for subterranean control of termites.
A carbamate insecticide growth regulator, which is used for flea, mosquito, cockroach, butterflies, moths, and scaled insects. It is considered to have very low toxicity for mammals, but is moderately to highly toxic to fish.
A proinsecticide that is used for crop protection against mites and insects and is used for termite control. It is considered an environmental hazard and can cause acute toxicity and may be a carcinogenic and cause cancer.
A systemic imidazole fungicide used to control fungus, powdery mildew, and black spots, and is used in postharvest treatment to prevent decay. It is considered moderately toxic and in high concentrations may cause goosebumps, muscle incoordination, reduced arterial tension, tremors and vomiting.
A neonicotinoid insecticide, which means that it is toxic to plant pollinators such as bees, butterflies, moths, etc. and it is considered to be an environmental hazard. It can cause acute toxicity if consumed – in moderate amount it may cause nausea, vomiting, dizziness, diarrhea, abdominal pain, and headaches, while larger amounts can result in seizures, breathing issues, respiratory failure, muscle breakdown, kidney damage, and even death.
A pesticide that is used to control livestock insects such as cattle grubs, lice, scabies, flies, and ticks. It is considered to be acutely toxic and can cause nausea, dizziness, confusion, respiratory arrest, and death.
An insecticide and acaricide that is used to control boll weevils and sucking insects pests. Methyl parathion can cause acute toxicity upon inhalation and consumption, and moderate toxicity upon dermal absorption, and symptoms can include respiratory issues, bloody noses, coughing, chest discomfort, pallor, vomiting, nausea, diarrhea, dizziness, eye pain, and more.
A plant growth regulator that was used to improve the balance between the vegetative growth and fruit production, which was discontinued by the manufacturer in 1989 and is currently registered to be used solely on ornamental and bedding plants. Studies showed that daminozide could cause an increase in the production of malignant and benign tumors.
A broad spectrum insecticide that is used to combat aphids, grasshoppers, leafhoppers, cutworms, caterpillars and many other insects. Mevinphos is highly toxic through all routes of exposure and can cause impaired judgement, giddiness, tightness of the chest, blurred vision, tearing, hearing irregularities, and more.
An insecticide that is used to control insects in agricultural and ornamental crops. While abamectin is considered to have a low toxicity point for mammals, it is considered a highly toxic material due to its acute toxicity for fish and aquatic invertebrates.
A rodenticide that is used to combat house mice, rats, and other rodents. It is considered to have an acute toxicity due to it being an anti-coagulant, and in large doses can cause hematoma, nose bleeds, bleeding gums, hematuria, and potentially hemorrhages.
An insecticide and acaricide which affects the nervous system and causes paralysis for insects. Bifenthrin is considered to be moderately toxic to mammals and is highly toxic to fish and aquatic organisms.
An insecticide that is used on many different insects including cockroaches, termites, ants, beetles, flies, moths, fleas, and weevils. It is considered to have an acute toxicity due to cyfluthrin’s ability to cause eye damage.
An insecticide that is commonly found in the pet industry in the treatment for removal of fleas and ticks. Fipronil is considered to have acute toxicity and can be harmful if consumed, inhaled, and dermal contact, and it is highly toxic to aquatic species.
A rodenticide that is used to combat house mice, rats, and other rodents and is especially useful for rodents that are resistant to conventional anticoagulants. Brodifacoum can cause acute toxicity and can be harmful for wildlife through secondary contact.
A rodenticide that is used to combat house mice, rats, and other rodents. Difenacoum can cause acute toxicity in large amounts if consumed, dermal absorption, and inhalation, and may cause reproductive harm.
An insecticide that is used as a fumigant to control pests such as mosquitos and is also used for veterinarian uses in combating parasitic worms in dogs. It is considered to be moderately to highly toxic through inhalation, ingestion and dermal absorption and can cause many severe issues including respiratory issues, skin irritation, nausea, vomiting, eye pain, blurred vision, and death from respiratory failure or cardiac arrest.
An insecticide that is used to combat a wide range of insects including aphids, leaf miners, lepidopterous larvae, sawflies, and thrips. Acephate is considered mild skin, eye and respiratory irritant, but chronic toxicity has been shown to cause fetotoxin (poisoning of a fetus).
A broad spectrum insecticide and is also used as an acaricide to control ticks and spiders, along with being used as fly bait. Methomyl is considered to be highly toxic to humans when absorbed through the eyes or ingested, and it can be moderately toxic when inhaled, but has lower toxicity through dermal contact.
A preventative and curative system fungicide that combats diseases such as rice blast, rusts, downy mildew, powdery mildew, late blight, apple scab, and Septoria. Azoxystrobin can cause acute toxicity in large amounts through inhalation, and is very toxic to aquatic life and can cause long-term effects on the aquatic environment.
An insecticide that is used in soil application to combat insects such as wireworm, fleabeetle larvae, cutworm, rootworm, cutworm and more. Ethoprop can have an acute toxicity through large amounts that are consumed, dermally absorbed, and can be fatal if inhaled.
A pesticide and fungicide, myclobutanil is more commonly known as “Eagle 20,” and is used to combat things such powdery mildew, dollar spot, summer patch, and more. Myclobutanil can cause acute toxicity if large quantities are consumed, can cause severe eye damage, and may cause damage to an unborn child.
A fungicide that is used to combat different types of molds and fungi such as blue mold, gray mold, white mold, in an effort to protect plant health. Boscalid is considered to be an environmental hazard due to it being toxic to aquatic life with long-term effects upon the environment.
A fungicide treatment that is used to combat a range of diseases such as Fusarium, Rhizoctonia and Alternaria. Fludioxonil is considered an environmental hazard due to it being very toxic to aquatic life and can have long-term effects upon the aquatic environment.
A systemic foliar fungicide that can be used on a wide variety of crops and fungal diseases that affect them. Propiconazole is considered an irritant, a health hazard and an environmental hazard due to it potentially causing issues such causing an allergic skin reaction, is harmful if consumed, can cause fetal damage, and is extremely toxic to aquatic life and has long-term effects on the aquatic environment.
A wide spectrum insecticide that controls over 100 species of insects, and is also an molluscicide and an acaricide – working on snails, mites and ticks. Carbaryl is considered to be an irritant, health hazard and an environmental hazard due to it being potentially harmful if consumed, inhaled, being a carcinogen, and how toxic it is to aquatic life and environment.
A systemic insecticide that is used to control many sucking species of insects such as rice hoppers, aphids, thrips, whiteflies, termites, turf insects, soil insects and some beetles. Imidacloprid is considered to be an irritant and environmental hazard due to it potentially being harmful if swallowed, and is extremely toxic to aquatic life and could have long-term effects upon aquatic environments.
A foliar fungicide that is used in the treatment of rust, powdery mildew, and leaf and head diseases, among many others. Tebuconazole is considered to be an irritant, health hazard and environmental hazard as it can be harmful if consumed, may be potentially harm a fetus, and is extremely toxic to aquatic life, as well as birds and mammals, and can have long-term effects on aquatic environments
An insecticide that works to control several species of moths, leafrollers, armyworms, caterpillars, white grubs, and beetles. Chlorantraniliprole is considered to be an irritant and environmental hazard due to it potentially causing severe eye irritation or damage, respiratory tract irritation, and is extremely toxic to aquatic life and can have long-term effects on aquatic environments.
A non-systemic, wide spectrum insecticide that is used to control sucking and chewing insects, an acaricide, as well as other species of insects such as mosquitoes, flies, household insects, animal parasites (ectoparasites) and head and body lice. Malathion is considered to be an irritant and an environmental hazard due to it potentially causing an allergic skin reaction, is harmful if consumed, and is extremely toxic to aquatic life and can have long-term effects on aquatic environments.
A broad spectrum insecticide that is used to control insects including aphids, whiteflies, thrips, ricehoppers, ricebugs, mealybugs, white grubs, Colorado potato beetle, flea beetles, wireworms, ground beetles, leaf miners and some lepidopterous species. Thiamethoxam is considered to be an irritant and environmental hazard as it is dangerous if consumed and is extremely toxic to aquatic life and can have long-term effects upon aquatic environments.
A non-systemic insecticide that is used to control several types of sucking and leaf eating insects, as well as veterinarian usages for the treatment of fleas and ticks. Diazinon is considered to be an irritant due to it causing different symptoms such as nausea, vomiting, weakness, headaches, sweating, upon consumption; and is an environmental hazard due to it being extremely toxic to aquatic life and can have long-term effects upon aquatic environments.
A systemic fungicide that is used to control soil born pathogens, can help to control downy mildew, and is used as a postharvest fungicide. Metalaxyl is considered an irritant as it can cause an allergic skin reaction, and is harmful if consumed.
A systemic insecticide that is used to control a wide range of insect species including aphids, thrips, planthoppers and whiteflies, and is also an acaricide. Dimethoate is considered an irritant as it can cause an allergic skin reaction and is harmful if consumed and can cause issues such as nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, abdominal cramps, headache, dizziness, weakness, fatigue, involuntary muscle contractions, twitching, among other more severe issues.
An insecticide and molluscicide that is used to control sucking and biting insects, slugs, snails, and some soil pests. Methiocarb is considered to be an acute toxin and environmental hazard due to it being toxic if consumed and is extremely toxic to aquatic life and can have long-term effects on aquatic environments.
HOW DO WE TEST?
In order to test for all 66 types of pesticides, we have to use two different types of analyses based on the properties of the pesticide. 61 pesticides get tested via LC-MS/MS (liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry) and the other 5 are tested via GC-MS/MS (gas chromatography tandem mass spectrometry).